Arms action: Pulling and catching
- The arms are directed slightly downward and forward.
- Extended and together.
- With palms down.
- The first movement is a “pronation” so that the palm of the hand looks out at an angle of 45 ° with the horizontal.
- The arms separate outstretched while the wrists flex (20°).
- The movement is out and horizontally or slightly downward.
- The stroke is finished when the arms are beyond the width of the shoulders and the swimmer starts bending the elbows.
- It is important to note that when you join hands, the elbows should not be too delayed relative to the shoulders.
- The arms remain separated while the elbow is flexed.
- The hands at this moment are directed out and down, until you reach the shoulder height, this is the instant when the hands change direction.
- The elbows bend until they reach about 100°.
- The hands are directed inward, palms in supination relative to the previous position.
- They follow their movement into and forward until they join in front and ahead of the face.
Recovery and action of the arms
- The hands together in front of his face with the palms up, down or facing each other.
- The elbows approach ahead of the face, but not getting too close to the body.
- The arms are directed forward and down with the least possible resistance, reaching the maximum extent.
Kick and action of the legs
- The feet turn out and down, keeping dorsal flexion and external rotation.
- The movement ends with the legs open and almost extended, (about 45o) and with the feet down to the maximum depth.
- From this point the feet turn inward and upward while rotating in and perform a flexion.
- The flexion should not be maximum, to prevent this action from producing a reaction sinking the hips.
- The kick ends with legs spread near the water surface, together with the soles facing each other.
- The legs begin their bending, while they separate knees.
- Keep your feet together and parallel to the surface of the water.
- At the last moment, when they are near the buttocks, they rotate out and are separated taking the initial position.
- During this phase it’s important that the trunk-thigh flexion is not overdone.
- Onward and looking down.
- Look ahead and down approximately 30 degrees from the surface of the water.
- Most swimmers breathe in all strokes, this action being convenient and simple to perform.
- The movement of the arms in the pull, tends to raise the shoulders so that with a slight tilt of the head, the face is out of the water, this always happens at the end of the initial effort.
- Breath should be taken in by the mouth, not the nose.
- Immediately after the inhalation, the swimmer’s shoulders tend to sink, while the arms are brought forward. In the normal swimming position the head leans forward in line with the water surface.
- The exhalation must be done through the mouth or nose and mouth, the latter being the most likely practice, ensuring no water entering the nostrils.
- The breathing rhythm depends mainly on the technique the swimmer has acquired. A fast-paced swimmer requires explosively exhalation in the middle of the drive.
- A slower swim allows holding your breath, until a change in frequency or speed.
- The easiest way to teach breathing is to teach students to blow their hands as these move forward during recovery.
- We need to focus more on the exhalation phase than in the inhalation. A swimmer can breathe and remain in respiratory apnea for a considerable period, but once that has expired, the next inhalation must be done immediately, for this reason, breathing exercises should put more emphasis on blowing hands while going forward that in the inhalation at the end of each pull.
- The head begins its rise at the beginning of the grip, without an active movement, following the general drive of the body.
- It reaches its maximum height at the end of pull or beginning of recovery, this being the moment of inhalation.
- The head goes forward and down to dive without being completely covered by water.
- Most of the face will be in the water before starting the kick.
Arms and legs
The legs recover during the final flip and early recovery of the arms.
- Effect the kick during the second part of the recovery of the arms, and must finish the stroke before the kick, so that this is done with the body as aligned as possible.
- The stroke can start in three stages:
- After a glide it is not desirable, since the swimmer lose much speed. This can only be used as exercise assimilation.
- At the end of the kick. Only swimmers with very powerful kick.
- Before the end of the kick, it will be used by swimmers with a less powerful kick.
Although today we begin to see that a lot of swimmers use it since it allows the highest values of propulsive uniformity.